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New Criteria for Brine Discharge Outfalls from Desalination Plants

  • Raed Bashitialshaaer
  • Kenneth M Persson
  • Magnus Larson
  • Thomas Missimer
  • Burton Jones
  • Robert Maliva
Publishing year: 2015
Language: English
Pages: 451-467
Publication/Series: Intakes and Outfalls for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination Facilities
Document type: Book chapter
Publisher: Springer
Additional info: Intakes and Outfalls for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination Facilities Innovations and Environmental Impacts Series: Environmental Science and Engineering Missimer, Thomas, Burton, Jones, Maliva, Robert (Eds.) 2015, 500 p. 275 illus., 185 illus. in color.

Abstract english

An efficient method for increasing the dilution rate of brine water discharged into the sea is an inclined negatively buoyant jet from a single port or a multi-diffuser system. Such jets typically arise when brine is discharged from desalination plants. Two small-scale experimental studies were conducted to investigate the behaviour of a dense jet discharged into lighter ambient water.
The first experiment concerned the importance of the initial angle of inclined dense jets, where the slope of the flow increased for the maximum levels as a function of this angle. An angle of 60° produced better results than 30° or 45°. An empirical predictive equation was developed based on five geometric quantities to be considered in the design of plants.
The second experiment studied the near and intermediate fields of negatively buoyant jets. Dilution in the flow direction was increased by about 10 % and 40 % with bottom slope, and bottom slope together with a 30° jet inclination, respectively. An over 16 % bottom slope experiment and more field work in the future are needed to compare with this result. It was found that an inclination of 30° with a 16 % bottom slope were optimal for the design of brine discharge outfall.


  • Water Engineering
  • Desalination
  • Water resources
  • Brine discharge


  • ISBN: 978-3-319-13202-0
E-mail: raed [dot] bashitialshaaer [at] cme [dot] lu [dot] se

Visiting research fellow

Centre for Middle Eastern Studies


Center for Middle Eastern Studies
Lund University
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Phone: +46 (0)46 222 00 00 (pbx)
maria [dot] lofstedt [at] cme [dot] lu [dot] se