Javascript is not activated in your browser. This website needs javascript activated to work properly.
You are here

Water Quality, Availability and Potential of Geothermal Energy Utilization, Afra Water, Jordan

  • Mohammad Aljaradin
  • Raed Bashitialshaaer
  • Hossam Alitawi
  • Mazen Amaireh
Publishing year: 2017-02-01
Language: English
Pages: 17-25
Publication/Series: Sustainable Resources Management Journal
Volume: 2
Issue: 1
Document type: Journal article

Abstract english

Reusing of 3.3 MCM (million cubic meter) of water every year from utilizing thermal water of the hot springs will boost the availability of water at the Dead Sea area. This water represent an additional sources of water for agribusiness in which all available springs and similar sources can follow the same way of successful. In this work the water quality of Afra hot springs was analysed at source and compared with the water at downstream at the Dead Sea area. Microbial analysis found no traces for faecal coliform and E.coli bacteria which lower the risk for contract diseases when the water is used for irrigation without any prior treatment. The water at upstream rich with high trace of metals with a significant content of bicarbonate, BOD5 and COD but within Jordanian standards for irrigation purposes. Slight variations between physicochemical parameters and trace metal contents found between the water from the source and the water at the downstream because of surface runoff interactions at the way down. Afra spring water at the source is considered as low-enthalpy geothermal sources, as the temperature is range between 45-48 oC, therefore, power generation is unlikely to be possible. However, it can be used in curative water tourist. According to the water quality and availability, different suggestions for treatment and uses will be defined in this paper. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential uses at the downstream.


  • Water Engineering
  • Afra hot spring
  • utilizing thermal water
  • chemical analysis
  • agribusiness


  • ISSN: 2002-6145
E-mail: raed [dot] bashitialshaaer [at] cme [dot] lu [dot] se

Visiting research fellow

Centre for Middle Eastern Studies


Center for Middle Eastern Studies
Lund University
Box 201, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
Visiting adress: Finngatan 16
Phone: +46 (0)46 222 00 00 (pbx)
maria [dot] lofstedt [at] cme [dot] lu [dot] se