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Profile photo of Ronny Berndtsson

Ronny Berndtsson

Professor, Dep Director, MECW Dep Scientific Coordinator

Profile photo of Ronny Berndtsson

Relating air temperatures to the depletion of snow covered area in a Himalayan basin


  • P Singh
  • Lars Bengtsson
  • Ronny Berndtsson

Summary, in English

A procedure for evaluating depletion of snow covered area (SCA) using mean air temperature has been outlined and tested. Because depletion of snow is a cumulative effect of climatic conditions in and around snow cover area, the cumulative mean temperature (CTM) at a nearby station should represent depletion of SCA. The study was carried out for Satluj basin (22,305 km(2)) located in the western Himalayan region. Melting starts around beginning of March, therefore, reference date for computing CTM was considered March 1. Data of three ablation seasons (1987-1989) were used to establish relationship between SCA and CTM. It was found that depletion of SCA is exponentially correlated with CTM (R-2 > 0.98). An exponential reduction of SCA can be explained on the basis of snow distribution in the mountainous basins. This method has a potential for estimating missing data and extending time series on daily, weekly or Monthly basis. Once the depletion trend is established in, the basin in the first part of melt season, SCA can be simulated with good accuracy using CTM data for the rest period of melt season. Such applications can reduce the number of satellite images required for obtaining SCA information. A forecast of SCA can also be made using forecasted air temperatures. Impact of climate change on depletion of SCA over the melt period indicated that for the considered range of temperature increase (1-3degreesC), melting area of snow increased linearly with increase in temperature. An increase in temperature by 2degreesC enhanced the melting area of snow over the melt season by 5.1%.


  • Division of Water Resources Engineering

Publishing year







Nordic Hydrology





Document type

Journal article


  • Water Engineering




  • ISSN: 0029-1277