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Nanoparticle Infection of Soils and Groundwater

Graphichal abstract illustrating the findings of the article.
Source: Shahi et al. 2024

CMES researcher Hossein Hashemi has co-authored an article published in the journal Chemosphere.

The article, "Transport and retention of functionalized graphene oxide nanoparticles in saturated/unsaturated porous media: Effects of flow velocity, ionic strength and initial particle concentration", was authored by Mahsa Shahi (Lund University), Mohammad Reza Alavi Moghaddam (Amirkabir University of Technology), Seiyed Mossa Hosseini (University of Tehran), Hossein Hashemi (CMES), Magnus Persson (Lund University) and Elaheh Kowsari (University of Technology). 


The widespread use of nanomaterials has raised the threat of nanoparticles (NPs) infection of soils and groundwater resources. This research aims to investigate three parameters including flow velocity, ionic strength (IS), and initial particle concentration effects on transport behavior and retention mechanism of functionalization form of graphene oxide with polyvinylpyrrolidone (GO-PVP). The transport of GO-PVP was investigated in a laboratory-scale study through saturated/unsaturated (Saturation Degree = 0.91) sand columns. Experiments were conducted on flow velocity from 1.20 to 2.04 cm min−1, initial particle concentration from 10 to 50 mg L−1, and IS of 5–20 mM. The retention of GO-PVP was best described using the one-site kinetic attachment model in HYDRUS-1D, which accounted for the time and depth-dependent retention. According to breakthrough curves (BTCs), the lower transport related to the rate of mass recovery of GO-PVP was obtained by decreasing flow velocity and initial particle concentration and increasing IS through the sand columns. Increasing IS could improve the GO-PVP retention (based on katt and Smax) in saturated/unsaturated media; katt increases from 2.81 10−3 to 3.54 10−3 s−1 and Smax increases from 0.37 to 0.42 mg g−1 in saturated/unsaturated conditions, respectively. Our findings showed that the increasing retention of GO-PVP through the sand column under unsaturated condition could be recommended for the reduction of nanoparticles danger of ecosystem exposure.

Read the article